Research model suggests moons of some planets developed from rings

first_imgThis is an image of the planet Uranus taken by the spacecraft Voyager 2 in 1986. Image: NASA (—French researchers Sébastien Charnoz and Aurélien Crida have proposed in a paper published in the journal Science that moons that orbit some of the planets in our solar system came about due to accretion from material in rings that used to surround the planets, rather than as entities that took shape while their host planets were forming. Citation: Research model suggests moons of some planets developed from rings (2012, November 30) retrieved 18 August 2019 from Explore further ‘Hot Jupiter’ planets unlikely to have moons More information: Formation of Regular Satellites from Ancient Massive Rings in the Solar System, Science, 30 November 2012: Vol. 338 no. 6111 pp. 1196-1199 DOI: 10.1126/science.1226477ABSTRACTWhen a planetary tidal disk—like Saturn’s rings—spreads beyond the Roche radius (inside which planetary tides prevent aggregation), satellites form and migrate away. Here, we show that most regular satellites in the solar system probably formed in this way. According to our analytical model, when the spreading is slow, a retinue of satellites appear with masses increasing with distance to the Roche radius, in excellent agreement with Saturn’s, Uranus’, and Neptune’s satellite systems. This suggests that Uranus and Neptune used to have massive rings that disappeared to give birth to most of their regular satellites. When the spreading is fast, only one large satellite forms, as was the case for Pluto and Earth. This conceptually bridges the gap between terrestrial and giant planet systems.center_img Space researchers have long proposed that moons circulating planets generally came to exist in one of three ways: as entities that formed on their own as their host was developing, as clumps that coalesced from material shed from a planet struck by some other body, or by being captured as they passed by. In this new research, Charnoz and Crida propose a fourth possibility – that the moons were formed from material in rings that surrounded their host planet.In attempting to explain how moons orbiting planets such as Uranus, Neptune and Pluto, came about, the researchers created mathematical models that could predict moon formation from material surrounding a planet. Their models suggest that when material in a ring reaches a certain critical point at some distance from the host, called the Roche radius, the gravity from the host planet is offset by the gravitational pull that each piece exerts on others in the ring. Because of this, material in the ring begins to coalesce with some pieces eventually accreting enough material to form a moon. They add that the speed at which material in the ring orbits the host may account for the number of moons that form. Slow moving material might result in the formation of several small moons, while fast moving material may result in just one, as might have been the case with Earth and its single moon. Their model explains, they suggest, why all of the moons orbiting planets (except for Jupiter) in our solar system grow in size as they orbit farther from the host planet. Jupiter they say, is an exception, with its moons likely originating in tandem with the planet birth itself.The researchers concede that their models can’t explain how the rings themselves came to exist, but suggest it’s possible that they came about due to collisions with other bodies moving through space. © 2012 Journal information: Science This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only.last_img read more

Researchers make complex molecule that spontaneously folds like a protein

first_img Researchers discover the initial stages of the folding mechanism of membrane proteins © 2019 Science X Network Journal information: Journal of the American Chemical Society Explore further To induce spontaneous folding, the researchers added saltwater. They note that their molecule needed a nucleobase to form the macrocycle, but others, such as guanine or adenine, would work equally well. They next plan to work with the molecule they created to learn how to modify its self-assembly properties to create designer macrocycles in the future. They also note that their process demonstrates that folding molecules might have played a role in the beginning of life on Earth at an earlier stage than has been thought. Core part of the foldamer, showing five stacks of three phenyl rings connected by disulfide bonds. Credit: Bin Liu, University of Groningen Top view of the central cavity of the folded molecule. Credit: Bin Liu, University of Groningencenter_img In nature, there are a number of proteins that fold spontaneously to carry out various functions. But misfolding can lead to problems, such as the development of neurological diseases. Scientists have been interested in such folding not only because it might help in understanding human ailments, but because it might be relevant to understanding how life began on Earth. In this new effort, the researchers sought to replicate the folding seen in nature by building their own spontaneously folding molecules.The researchers report that they achieved their goal—they found a way to create a self-assembling, self-folding molecule called a macrocycle. More specifically, a 15mer macrocycle made up of 75 atoms. To achieve the folding, the molecule was formed in the shape of a ring. The researchers note that the end result (called a foldamer) had a hydrophilic surface and a hydrophobic core, which they note mirrors the structure of naturally occurring folding proteins. They further note that the foldamer was held together by hydrogen bonds, the interaction between ring stacking and a disulfide bridge. The molecule also had a third tiled structure made of stacks of rings. More information: Bin Liu et al. Complex Molecules that Fold like Proteins Can Emerge Spontaneously, Journal of the American Chemical Society (2018). DOI: 10.1021/jacs.8b11698Press release Citation: Researchers make complex molecule that spontaneously folds like a protein (2019, January 11) retrieved 18 August 2019 from In biology, folded proteins are responsible for most advanced functions. These complex proteins are the result of evolution or design by scientists. Now, a team of scientists led by University of Groningen Professor of Systems Chemistry, Sijbren Otto, have discovered a new class of complex folding molecules that emerge spontaneously from simple building blocks. The results were published in the Journal of the American Chemical Society on 16 January.A team of researchers from the Netherlands, Italy and Poland has developed a way to make complex molecules that spontaneously fold like proteins. In their paper published in the Journal of the American Chemical Society, the group describes their approach to manipulating molecules in useful ways, what they discovered, and the ways they believe their results might be used. This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only.last_img read more

Egging on the flavours

first_imgWe headed over the check out what they had to offer and we were not disappointed! Conceptually a 24-hour coffee shop, Eggspectation has an incredible menu where you can pick food off a breakfast list, light snacks and proper meals as well. We started off with Page from the juice bar which is an incredible bled of fruits and a ‘multi vitamin blast’ as they like to call it. As the name would make you expect, Eggspectation has a long list of omelettes that you can pick from including the ever-favourite scrambled eggs and more exotic ones like the Southwestern Sunrise and the Mykonos Omellette. Also Read – ‘Playing Jojo was emotionally exhausting’Make sure you try the Salmon Crostini – it is incredible and so light that you would have to stop yourself from just bingeing on that! Take your pick from pastas, burgers, sandwiches, pizzas and something the chef calls the flatbread. Flatbreads are like thin crust pizzas but they are not baked in the oven – instead made on the open stove with the choice of toppings. But don’t worry – they are just as delectable as your pizzas.Eggspectation also offers a wide array of meats and seafood. We picked the grilled fish that we absolutely loved. And for dessert have the Smores French Toast – though ideally meant for breakfast, this can surely be had all day long and you will love it! Keeping up with the spirit of the season, Eggspectation is whipping up some yummy eggnogs. Make sure you try them. A meal for two comes to around Rs 1600 plus taxes.last_img read more

Fire at old 2storeyed building at Elliot Rd

first_imgKolkata: Two separate incidents of fire took place in the city on Saturday afternoon with no casualties or injuries being reported.A fire broke out at the second floor of an old two-storeyed building on Elliot Road on Saturday triggering panic among the residents of the building at the time of the incident. Five fire tenders were pressed into action and the situation was brought under control after nearly two hours.Some of the locals spotted smoke billowing out of a room situated on the second floor of the building that lacked any fire fighting mechanism. The matter was immediately reported to the fire brigade. The fire fighters initially faced difficulties to spot the source as thick black smoke had already covered the area. Senior police officers also rushed to the spot. Also Read – Rain batters Kolkata, cripples normal lifeThe traffic movement through Elliot Road was restricted for a couple of hours. A disaster management team also swung into action to bring the situation under control.According to the police, the second floor of the building houses a few private offices. The employees fled the building after a fire alarm was triggered by the locals. According to preliminary investigation, the fire officials suspect that the old building had no fire safety mechanism in place and steps will be taken against the owners if any lapses are found. The cause of the fire and extent of the damage are yet to be ascertained.In another incident, a fire broke out from the meter box of a multi-storeyed building on Sambhunath Pandit Street on Saturday afternoon. Three fire tenders extinguished the flames which might have been caused due to an electrical short circuit. A probe has been initiated.last_img read more

Flute melodies to propagate peace

first_imgThe 5-day-long festival, set to begin on September 21, also celebrated as International Day of Peace, will also usher in the United Nations’ 12-day peace campaign here. “This year the Flute Festival will take place in the first few days of the 12-day-campaign. The flute, is a pan-Indian instrument apart from being a global peace instrument. It links and binds this nation with its sweetness and brings together the human, spiritual and divine elements in a way that is unique and so beautiful,” Rajiv Chandran, currently heading United Nations Information Centre for India and Bhutan (UNIC) said.27 flautists  will form the international component of the festival. Major attractions will include Riga Saxophone Quartet from Latvia and Arcadio Baracchi from Italy among others. Some Indian performers include Pandit Pravin Godhkindi, Pandit Ronu Majumdar and Pandit Chetan Joshi.last_img read more

Man falls off train gets saved by Eastern Railway

first_imgKolkata: Taking immediate steps soon after receiving information, the Eastern Railway authorities have saved life of a 35-year-old man who fell off from a train in Bandel-Burdwan section on Saturday late night. According to the Eastern Railway authorities, loco pilot of 13019 Up Howrah-Kathgodam Bagh Express has passed information that a 35-year-old man fell off from a compartment in between Pundooah and Simlagarh stations of Bandel-Burdwan section. It was informed to the authorities that the incident took place at around 11.17 pm on Saturday. Soon after receiving the information, initiatives were taken to rescue the person. A diesel pilot engine from Baichi was pressed into action. The officers in the rescue team found the man lying with injuries. It was midnight when the person was rescued. They took him in the diesel pilot engine and brought him to Simlagarh. From Simlagarh they took the injured man to Chinsurah in Hooghly by car and admitted him to Chinsurah Hospital. He underwent necessary treatment in the hospital. The Diesel pilot engine was sent soon after receiving the information from the loco pilot of 13019 Up Howrah-Kathgodam Bagh Express. The prompt action of the Eastern Railway authorities has saved the life of the man.last_img read more

A blend of contemporary and local flavours

first_imgWith a discernment to give their guests a remarkable culinary experience, The Lalit New Delhi hosted Chef Ollie Dabbous and Mixologist Oskar Kinberg, co-owners of the Michelin-starred Dabbous, London from September 29 to October 2.In this one-of-its-kind endeavour, the Michelin Chef and The Lalit Team planed three exceptional gourmet nights at The Lalit New Delhi, which included re-launching European speciality restaurant The Grill Room. The menu was an amalgamation of Chef Ollie’s signature recipes and thoughtful innovations while Mixologist Oskar churned some exotic cocktails to compliment the flavours.   Also Read – Add new books to your shelfThe List at Kitty Su (the only Indian club to be featured in DJ Mag’s Top 100 Clubs) welcomed its patrons, where Oskar showcased some of his signature cocktails and Ollie delighted the guests with finger food. Bespoke dishes combining contemporary creations with local flavours, prepared by Chef Ollie were served at Baluchi dinner night.Talking about his experience Chef Ollie said, “It is our first time in India and we are very excited to showcase our food to such a varied audience. We are already overwhelmed by the response and also by the Lalit hospitality. I would like to thank Mr Keshav Suri to have given us this opportunity.”  Also Read – Over 2 hours screen time daily will make your kids impulsive“We always like to do something innovative and path breaking for our guests. From Naanery to cheese wheel pasta to Michelin star Chef, I plan to make it bigger and better, for all the food lovers,” added Keshav Suri, Executive Director of The Lalit Suri Hospitality Group. The group has twelve 5-star hotels, palaces and resorts throughout India. However the residency will also introduce international audiences to the Baluchi concept that will be an integral part of The Lalit Suri Hospitality Group’s first overseas hotel, The Lalit London is set to open later this year.last_img read more

Fashion trends that will rule this party season

first_imgWinter brings in a lot of confusion in terms of choosing the right outfit that not only keeps you away from chilly season but also protects you from winter. Bomber jackets and velvet are some of the pieces that you opt for to stay both fashionable and warm, says an expert.1. Velvet: Arriving in a shocking array of bright hues, velvet is no longer the fabric of dark, romantic, gothic evening-only clothes, but one to be mixed into the most vibrant street styler’s daytime wardrobes. You’ll find it used in everything from trouser suits to thigh-high boots. Blazers,velvet in the form of kick-around sneakers, sleek flats, and flirty evening options  Also Read – Add new books to your shelf2. Bomber jackets: The bomber has recently taken over the fashion world, but this year it takes on a new twist in unusual colors and fresh silhouettes. Whether oversized or embroidered, it’s all about the details in 2016.3. Slip dresses: The slip dress can seem intimidating because of its clinging, slinky silhouette. But trying an A-line version of this trend is just as chic and a much easier wear. Pair it with an oversized sweater or a crossbody bag with plenty of hardware, heels, and a leather jacket. Also Read – Over 2 hours screen time daily will make your kids impulsive4. Metallic dress: Metallic dresses are yet another eye-catching trend in winter. We saw both micro-sequined dresses to metallic fabrics in colours like gold, brass, silver, metallic fuchsia to burnt gold.5. Fur collars: The fur collars in coats and dresses, which is quite wintry! Try it in the deep colours like black and grape , or in light pastels or even the marble patterned one. 6. Ruffles: Ruffles can be seen in different styles – some on dresses, some on skirts or tops, but they were seen in the collections of so many of design houses like Roberto Cavalli, Dior and Oscar de la Renta .7. Trench vest: The trench coat will always be a classic staple in all of our closets, but this year it’s trending in a fresh sleeveless silhouette. Whether you’re running to brunch or heading to a meeting, this vest is a perfect layering option to step up your favorite outfit.last_img read more