William von Eggers Doering

first_imgWhen William von Eggers Doering, a 26-year-old postdoctoral fellow under the direction of Robert Burns Woodward, completed the first formal synthesis of quinine at Harvard in the spring of 1944, the news made headlines in Time and Newsweek, and the New York Times called this work “one of the greatest scientific achievements in a century.” The success in making quinine not only promised access to the substance necessary for the cure of malaria, then a threat to U.S. soldiers fighting in southeast Asia, but also signaled the emergence of the United States as a world leader in chemical synthesis. For Doering, prowess in making chemical compounds may have made him an overnight sensation, but what fascinated him far more, and distinguished him in his later career, was the how and why of organic chemical reactions and the communication of his insights and technique to generations of students.Doering’s parents, both musicians, met at the conservatory in Leipzig, Germany. The couple moved to the United States in 1915 and secured positions on the music faculty at Texas Christian University in Fort Worth, where William was born and spent his early childhood. Doering was raised in a Germanic environment, and he retained an affinity for things German most of his life. He kept a flat in the Black Forest where he hiked yearly, welcomed German postdoctoral fellows into his group and collaborated with many of them for the rest of his career, and occasionally even came to his Harvard laboratory clad in knickers and cape.Doering’s father quickly found medicine more to his liking, and joined the faculty of the Harvard School of Public Health. William spent his school years at the Shady Hill School and Belmont Hill, becoming fascinated with science, Latin, the crafting of model airplanes, and explosions. As a Harvard undergraduate, he was attracted to the study of organic chemistry after taking courses with Louis Fieser, Elmer Kohler, and Paul Bartlett. Doering excelled in organic synthesis and considered pursuing graduate work in the subject, but mechanistic organic chemistry had greater appeal. He completed doctoral work in 1943 with Reginald Linstead on the stereochemistry of catalytic hydrogenation, then worked on the synthesis of anti-mustard gas compounds in Fieser’s laboratory until concerns were raised about a second cousin who had served as President of the Reichsbank under Hitler. Doering was recruited by Woodward to apply his expertise to a less sensitive project funded by the Polaroid Corporation, which became the synthesis of quinine. Towards the end of that project in 1943, Doering took up his first independent post at Columbia, returning to Harvard at intervals to complete the final, crucial steps.Having almost been ejected from Harvard because of his family connections, Doering often described himself as an outsider and tended to avoid any research area that he perceived as crowded. Beginning with his Columbia appointment, Doering’s group deduced novel mechanistic insights, systematically exploring and relinquishing topics when others entered the field. His early work included the pioneering synthesis of the unusually stable tropylium ion, which opened the field of nonbenzenoid aromatic compounds, fundamental studies of carbenes, and the elucidation of the mechanism of insertion of singlet methylene into the carbon-hydrogen bond. Doering moved his graduate research group to Yale in 1952 and again to Harvard in 1967 when he became Mallinckrodt Professor of Chemistry. By the time he arrived at Harvard, his work had been recognized by election to the National Academy of Sciences, an honor achieved subsequently by five of his former graduate students. Doering eventually received many of the American Chemical Society’s top prizes, and he remains the only person ever to receive the ACS’s highest awards for both organic synthesis and mechanistic organic chemistry, an achievement that underscores the richness of Doering’s work, which extended over eight decades.One of Doering’s signature achievements was his work on the mechanism of the Cope rearrangement, a tranformation considered so difficult to study that it was termed a “no- mechanism” reaction. Doering’s explorations led to elucidation of the transition state structure of the Cope rearrangement using a brilliantly simple stereochemical labeling experiment that has ever since been a mainstay of all advanced textbooks. Further efforts led to the prediction in 1963 and subsequent synthesis of a small hydrocarbon called bullvalene in honor of Bill “Bull” Doering. This extraordinary molecule rapidly undergoes over 1,000,000 different Cope rearrangements, resulting in each of its ten carbons becoming equivalent to one another.Reform of Harvard’s undergraduate organic chemistry curriculum was another priority for Doering, with overhauls of Chemistry 20, for which he received standing ovations from his undergraduates at the end of every term, and the introduction of a laboratory course, Chemistry 135, that taught proficiency in synthetic technique and the planning of reactions. Both courses remain popular to this day. Doering took emeritus status in 1986 but continued to supervise postdoctoral fellows and publish for another 22 years. One of his greatest achievements in later years was opening the door to Chinese scholars. Realizing the dearth of knowledge of professors during a 1980 visit to China, he proposed a graduate program to bring promising students to universities in North America. The Chemistry Graduate Program, directed by Doering with support from the Chinese Ministry of Education, brought over 250 students universities in North America. The effects were enormous: the thousands of young Chinese who studied chemistry in North  American Ph.D. programs as a direct result of Doering’s program established a new generation of chemical leaders in China. The CGP-Doering Foundation, named in his honor, continues to promote scientific exchange.Doering’s many interests outside the lab included international politics. During the 1960s and 70s, he served as Chairman of the Board and President of the Council for a Livable World (CLW), which supported nuclear non-proliferation and arms control by lobbying and contributing to U.S. Senate campaigns.William Doering is survived by two sons, Christian and Peter, and a daughter, Margaretta Doering Volk.Respectfully submitted,Richard HolmEric Jacobsen, Chairlast_img read more

Kastav introduced a system of electric public bicycles – Kastav Bike

first_imgThe tariff for using electric bikes of the Kastav bike system is 15 kuna per hour, and the maximum rent is 4 hours. For exceeding the time, an additional tariff of 30 kuna per overtime hour is charged. By the way, one charge is enough for 70 kilometers, and bicycles are charged with the help of solar panels at the station. Bicycle rental is possible from 1 March until 31 October, from 7:21 to XNUMX:XNUMX. Payment is made using a secure real-time debit and credit card payment system. After payment, the user receives a ride code that is typed on the touch-sensitive case and unlocks the desired bike with the help of a mobile phone. The city of Kastav has introduced a system of using public bicycles – Kastav bike, as a new content intended for citizens and tourists. Source / Photo: City of Kastavcenter_img The most modern base station and five electric mountain bikes are located on Crekvina, at the entrance to the forests Loza and Lužina. The project was implemented with the help of the Ministry of Tourism and the Fund for Environmental Protection and Energy Efficiency, and the total value is 273 thousand kuna. To use the Kastav bike system, you need a mobile phone and a debit or credit card. The bicycle can be used by any adult natural person who has established a rental via a one-time alphanumeric QRPay code and registration, at the station itself. last_img read more

‘La Liga will go on without Messi as it did without Ronaldo’

first_img Promoted ContentYou’ve Only Seen Such Colorful Hairdos In A Handful Of AnimeDid You Know There’s A Black Hole In The Milky Way?What Happens When You Eat Eggs Every Single Day?Couples Who Celebrated Their Union In A Unique, Unforgettable Way10 TV Characters Who Were Destined To Become IconicA Soviet Shot Put Thrower’s Record Hasn’t Been Beaten To This Day6 Ridiculous Health Myths That Are Actually True10 Phones That Can Work For Weeks Without Recharging10 Risky Jobs Some Women DoTop 7 Best Car Manufacturers Of All Time8 Superfoods For Growing Hair Back And Stimulating Its Growth5 Of The World’s Most Unique Theme Parks But Tebas is confident LaLiga would survive without Messi, claiming it has already gone from strength to strength after Cristiano Ronaldo’s shock move from Real Madrid to Juventus two years ago. He said: “I do not think that the arrival of Messi can solve the problems of Serie A, which are linked to the bad relationship between high debts and insufficient collections. “Serie A figures are stressed and these economic problems are certainly not solved by Messi. “I would like Messi to stay here but if he leaves it would not be a drama. Spanish football president Javier Tebas claims Lionel Messi’s potential Barcelona exit would not be a blow to LaLiga. LaLiga’s president claims Lionel Messi’s potential exit will not harm the league Inter Milan have been tipped to pull off an audacious move for the Argentine superstar by their former chief Massimo Moratti. Messi, 32, is currently at odds with the Barca board after cutting his wages by 70 per cent to help support non-playing staff during the coronavirus crisis. The six-time Ballon d’Or winner also had a public spat with director Eric Abidal in the wake of Ernesto Valverde’s sacking earlier this season. And with just over a year remaining on his contract, there is a feeling Messi could call time on his brilliant Catalan career. He is regarded as one of the best in history, having scored 627 goals in 718 games while winning ten LaLiga titles and four Champions Leagues. Read Also: Real Madrid star Toni Kroos questions footballer wage cuts “Maybe it never was even before all this [coronavirus] misfortune. “He is in the final stretch of his contract and, without doubt, it would take a tremendous effort to bring him here. “I don’t know if the current situation changes anything for better or for worse.” FacebookTwitterWhatsAppEmail分享 center_img “It was said that without Ronaldo, La Liga would have lost money. “But instead we have earned more, even in Portugal. “Players help but are not essential to a championship.” It now remains to be seen if Inter do move for Messi after they triggered his £132million release clause in 2006 when he was just 18 years old. Former Inter president Moratti said: “I don’t believe Messi is a forbidden dream at all. Loading… last_img read more

The Latest: Indiana halt all voluntary workouts

first_imgThe ITTF froze the world rankings in April when all international competitions were postponed or canceled because of the coronavirus pandemic.The 16 top-ranked men and women will compete at the ITTF Finals. World Cup events will have 20-player lineups of no more than two from each country.___More AP sports: https://apnews.com/apf-sports and https://twitter.com/AP_Sports Share This StoryFacebookTwitteremailPrintLinkedinRedditThe Latest on the effects of the coronavirus outbreak on sports around the world:___Indiana has halted all voluntary workouts indefinitely for its men’s basketball, field hockey, men’s soccer and wrestling teams after 14 participants tested positive for the coronavirus this week. The Latest: Indiana halt all voluntary workouts The Hoosiers did not identify which teams recorded the positive tests. The football team, like other Big Ten programs, is not playing this fall. Indiana said 63 positives have been reported from more than 1,400 tests of athletes, coaches and staff since June 8.“Our athletic program is following strict protocols during these unprecedented times and we strongly support our medical staff as we try and mitigate this issue,” men’s basketball coach Archie Miller said.___TCU and SMU postponed their Sept. 11 matchup in Fort Worth after the Horned Frogs said that some players and support staff tested positive for the coronavirus.TCU athletic director Jeremiah Donati said the programs would try to make up the game at a later date. Donati said his program has been aggressive in following federal guidelines on testing and contact tracing. He said none of those who tested positive for COVID-19 are facing serious health issues.“We intend to continue our enforcement of strict standards to protect the program and our community,” Donati said.TCU is scheduled to play Iowa State in its Big 12 opener on Sept. 26. SMU opens its season on Saturday at Texas StateThe TCU-SMU matchup is just the latest game upended by COVID issues. North Carolina State game at Virginia Tech was moved from Sept. 12 to 26. Marshall and East Carolina postponed their Sept. 12 game and no makeup date has been set.___ Associated Press center_img The Indianapolis Colts today will allow a maximum of 2,500 fans at Lucas Oil Stadium for the team’s home opener Sept. 20 against the Minnesota Vikings. That number was determined following discussions with the Marion County Public Health Department and set to meet local, NFL and CDC guidelines to help limit the spread of COVID-19. But the Colts will not operate their Touchdown Town outside the stadium until further notice. Colts staff will meet with local health officials as early as next week to discuss capacity for future games.“Our top priority always will be the health and safety of fans, players and staff, so we must take the necessary precautions to keep everyone safe, which includes a reduced stadium capacity on game day,” said Pete Ward, the team’s COO. “We will continue to work with local health officials on steps that will allow our season to go on as safely as possible with fans in the stands. And we continue to appreciate the patience of all our fans as we navigate the fluid nature of this pandemic.” Next week, the team will release specific health and safety procedures for 2020 home games, which also will include requirements for fans and stadium employees on game days. ___Mississippi fans can have their faces in the stands — for a price — even if they can’t get into the games.The school is selling fans cutouts with photos of themselves for $55. They’ll be placed in the stands for football, soccer and volleyball games.Fans must wear Ole Miss attire in the photos. Attendance will be limited to 25% of capacity for football games at Vaught-Hemingway Stadium because of COVID-19. September 4, 2020 The first 500 orders for football games will be placed behind the goalposts. The rest will be placed throughout the lower bowl of the stadium.___Table tennis events will return in China in November.The International Table Tennis Federation says World Cup events for men and women will be held in China after the country took over hosting duties from Germany and Thailand.The Chinese table tennis federation says “we are able to come out from the darkness and to celebrate our return to the table.”last_img read more

It’s express delivery as England Golf partners British Speedgolf

first_img24 Apr 2017 It’s express delivery as England Golf partners British Speedgolf England Golf is partnering British Speedgolf to promote the fast and fun version of the game as part of its Golf Express campaign. The partnership supports the aims of both organisations to get more people playing golf by attracting them with shorter, quicker formats of the game. Golf Express is England Golf’s national campaign to encourage busy people to play more often by promoting 9-hole golf and other short formats. Speedgolf also sets out to appeal to people who love golf but can’t find the time to play with work and family commitments – and who enjoy running and having fun. It offers a faster, more athletic version of golf, where a player can complete a full 18 holes in under 80 minutes, or 9 holes in under 40 minutes, by jogging between shots. The challenge is balancing the running pace with the ability to quickly and accurately play shots to get the lowest score possible. A Speedgolf score combines the sum of shots with the time taken to run the golf course. Shooting a round of 90 in a time of 70 minutes and 21 seconds gives a Speedgolf score of 160:21. Both Golf Express and British Speedgolf highlight the fitness benefits of the sport. A nine-hole round at walking pace can be fitted in to two hours and means players will walk two to three miles, take over 5000 steps and burn over 450 calories. Speedgolf also offers players an opportunity to have fun while improving their health and fitness. British Speedgolf is planning to showcase its format during England Golf Week in August with an event on the Bracken course at Woodhall Spa. Claire Hodgson, England Golf Head of Participation, said: “Golf Express and British Speedgolf are a perfect fit and this new partnership will help us to tell more people that golf is a fun and flexible game which really can fit into a busy lifestyle.” Pam Painter, British Speedgolf Co-Founder, added: “Speedgolf adds an athletic dimension to golf that enhances the fitness benefits of the sport. It is also a lot of fun and is designed to fit into our hectic 21st century lifestyles. “Speedgolf appeals to golfers of all abilities but is also attracting those from the running community, especially individuals who favour cross discipline sports.”   To learn more about Golf Express and to find 9-hole or other short format offers and a directory of facilities visit www.golfexpress9.org To learn more about British Speedgolf visit www.britishspeedgolf.co.uk Image courtesy British Speedgolflast_img read more