CDC. Surveillance for waterborne-disease outbreaks associated with drinking waterUnited States, 2001-2002. MMWR 2004 Oct 22;53(SS08):23-45 (Full text) An estimated 1,020 people got sick from drinking contaminated water in 31 outbreaks in 2001 and 2002, the CDC reports today in a supplement to Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report. That compares with 39 outbreaks and an estimated 2,068 illness cases in 1999 and 2000. Two of the seven deaths were caused by the parasite Naegleria fowleri, in the first such outbreak linked to a drinking water system in the United States. The outbreak occurred in Arizona in October 2002. Of the 31 outbreaks, 23 involved groundwater sources, and 10 of these involved untreated groundwater. Two outbreaks involved treated water from rivers and streams. The report does not identify the water sources for the six outbreaks involving Legionella. However, outbreaks in the more recent period caused seven deaths, versus only two deaths in 1999-2000, the report says. See also: The six Legionella outbreaks involved 80 cases with 41 hospitalizations and four deaths. All the outbreaks were in large buildings or institutions and were related to growth of Legionella species in the water distribution systems, the CDC says. Oct 22, 2004 (CIDRAP News) The United States had fewer reported disease outbreaks linked to drinking water in 2001 and 2002 than in the preceding 2 years, and they affected about half as many people, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Five norovirus outbreaks accounted for close to three-fourths of all the illness cases727 of 1,020, the report says. Five outbreaks were blamed on parasites, five on chemical contamination, six on Legionella species, and three on other bacterial pathogens. The causes of seven outbreaks were never identified, but all were thought to be infectious agents. In the previous 2-year period, causes went unidentified in 17, or 44%, of the outbreaks, the report says. The reduction in unexplained outbreaks in 2001 and 2002 probably reflects both improved outbreak investigations and better diagnostic capabilities, the CDC says. CDC. Surveillance for waterborne disease outbreaksUnited States, 1999-2000. MMWR 2002 Nov 22;51(SS08):1-28 (Full text)
Royal Caribbean Cruises is claiming that they have video proof that the grandfather of the toddler who died last year after the grandfather accidentally dropped her out of an open window, was “unquestionably aware” that the window was open before the incident occurred.Chloe Wiegand fell to her death while abroad Royal Caribbean’s Freedom of the Seas ship in July when her grandfather lifted her up onto the window’s ledge and she fell 11-stories to the deck below.During the investigation, the grandfather Salvatore Anello, told authorities and his family that he lifted the child up so she could bang on the windows like she does at her older brother’s hockey games, but he was unaware that the window was open. Additionally, Anello told authorities that he is colorblind so he could not tell the difference between which windows were open and which were closed.The family filed a wrongful death lawsuit against the company stating that the company violated industry standards by failing to provide reasonably safe windows in an area where children play on the ship.In a counter to the wrongful death lawsuit filed by the family, Royal Caribbean cruises reported that surveillance video shows that the grandfather was fully aware that the window was open because he leaned his upper body out of it seconds before picking the child up and dangling her out of the window for half of a minute:“This is not a case of an unknowing child approaching an open window and falling out because the window was defective or improperly positioned,” the court documents read. “Rather, this is a case about an adult man, Chloe’s step-grandfather who, as surveillance footage unquestionably confirms: (1) walked up to a window he was aware was open; (2) leaned his upper body out the window for several seconds; (3) reached down and picked up Chloe; and (4) then held her by and out of the open window for thirty-four seconds before he lost his grip and dropped Chloe out of the window. His actions, which no reasonable person could have foreseen, were reckless and irresponsible and the sole reason why Chloe is no longer with her parents,” according to court records obtained by WPTV.Royal Caribbean cruise also added that all the windows have a green film on them to help distinguish which ones are open and which are closed, as well as handles on the ones that do open.The cruise company has since submitted the videos to officials and is seeking the dismissal of the family’s lawsuit.